An escalation in fighting between the Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army and the Tatmadaw near the town of Mong Ko on the China border has emptied villages, while inflaming longstanding tensions over who controls the area.
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Being displaced by conflict was bad enough, but now villagers in Kachin State are worried they will not be able to farm land when they eventually return home.
The peace process launched in 2011 has brought only escalating conflict in northern Shan State, where the situation is complicated by the number of ethnic armed groups.