As tensions peaked between Karen and Bamar in early 1949, Burmese irregular forces committed a series of mass killings on the outskirts of the then-capital that have never been officially acknowledged.
Sagaing Region residents equipped with single-shot traditional rifles known as “tumi guns” – and in some cases more modern weaponry – are resisting security forces’ attempts to crush anti-coup protests.
For two weeks, security forces waged a bloody war on South Dagon Township, where martial law and an uneasy standstill prevails. Frontier spoke to residents who have risked everything to resist military rule.
The Kayin State Border Guard Force has come under intense pressure from the Tatmadaw over its extensive, controversial business interests and there’s concern the ultimatum could trigger fresh hostilities in one of the country’s most war-torn areas.